Citing and Referencing

We maintain a centralised BibTeX file containing all references. The file is located within this repository in the file ./book/website/_bibliography/references.bib.

BibTeX file basics

BibTeX files are a way to format lists of references in a structured way. Basic elements of an entry include a reference type, a unique citation key, and a series of key-value pairs that describe the reference (for example, author or title).

There are a number of keywords for different references types in BibTeX. Luckily, there are tools to help format references into BibTeX syntax. If you know the DOI for your reference, you can use doi2bib to help populate a good enough BibTeX entry. For example, here is a good enough BibTeX entry for The Turing Way handbook itself. Another good tool is Google Scholar, where you search for a reference, click on the large double quotes ", and then click on “BibTeX” near the bottom.

Examples of listing a BibTeX-formatted reference are shown below.

Adding a new reference in references.bib

You can edit reference file locally using a method from the following:

We use a standard bibtex format to add a new entry. For example, there is an entry in the references.bib file as:

	Author = {Kuula, Arja},
	Date-Added = {2019-05-28 17:47:46 +0100},
	Date-Modified = {2019-05-30 8:57:26 am +0100},
	Journal = {IASSIST Quarterly},
	Number = {3-4},
	Pages = {35},
	Title = {Methodological and Ethical Dilemmas of Archiving Qualitative Data},
	Url = {},
	Volume = {34},
	Year = {2010}}

Finish editing by adding a new entry at the end of the file.

Citation key style-guide

We recommend using the following structure for citation keys:



  1. Author is the surname of the first author (Kuula above)

  2. YYYY is the year (2010 above)

  3. word is the first meaningful word in the title (archiving above). Note, this is subjective―choose a name that makes it easy to remember the reference when you see the citation key.

Adding a new reference in the text

To include a citation in your content, we follow the recommendation by Jupyter Book that uses sphinxcontrib-bibtex extension.

The key concepts are:

  • Include a reference using [CITEKEY], where CITEKEY is the corresponding citation key in references.bib

  • You can also include multiple citations in one go by separating the CITEKEYs by a comma: {cite}CITEKEY1,CITEKEY2,CITEKEY3

We will cite the article that we edit earlier in the reference.bib file using:


This will appear in your chapter as [Kuu10].

The complete bibliography entry is available at the end of this book (see resources) using the directives:

```{bibliography} ../_bibliography/references.bib


For the advanced usage, see the documentation by sphinxcontrib-bibtex, which is a Sphinx extension for BibTeX style citations.