Authorship and contributions on Academic Papers




Skill Level


Open Research




The image shows the current system of acknowledgement with many people holding up one person. Then the Turing Way recognises all contributors as we think all need to be acknowledged equally so we have everyone standing at the same level. It also shows a robot to represent the all-contributors bot and people writing on their contributors file.

Fig. 79 Illustration about acknowledgements on The Turing Way. The Turing Way project illustration by Scriberia. Used under a CC-BY 4.0 licence. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3332807.


This chapter sets out information about who are considered authors, academic authorship traditions in different disciplines, how practices concerning authorship are changing and how you might go about trying to achieve the authorship model you want to use.

Motivation and Background

The academic landscape is rapidly changing in favour of research projects involving large collaborations and interdisciplinary teams. This makes decisions concerning academic authorship hard to navigate and especially the need to consider different types of contributions fairly. Consequently, there is a shift in how researchers are thinking about assigning authorship for research outputs and what types of contributions are recognised and therefore valued.